There are HSA-eligible plans sold through the exchanges. You just need to look carefully for that and be sure the high-deductible policy you select clearly states that it can be paired with an HSA.
Keep in mind, however, that HSAs don't function alone. They must be paired with a high deductible health plan, so your daughter must buy an insurance policy as well.
Most state Medicaid program and insurance plans do not cover bariatric surgery. Most states also do not consider it an essential health benefit (but a few states do) so plans sold on the marketplace would not be required to cover it either.
The answer is yes, your wife can apply for coverage through the marketplace. However, if the cost of your employer's plan for just your portion of insurance doesn't cost more than 9.56% of your income, your wife will not qualify for a subsidy to help lower her insurance costs, even if your income would otherwise qualify you. This is a part of the law referred to as the "family glitch."
Still, it's worth checking out your options on Healthcare.gov. She may be able to find a plan that better fits your budget.
Ric: You will want to compare your total out-of-pocket costs, including premiums, to see which plan is better for you. A PPO will be a more expensive plan, but you will have lower and more predictable out-of-pocket costs when you receive care. In a lot of way it’s a safer choice after having a major accident or illness. On the other hand, if you save enough money in premiums with a HDHP, especially if your employer is funding a health savings account for you, you may be ok going with that.
Under the law if your wife wishes to get a tax credit to help lower the cost of insurance purchased through the marketplace, you'll have to file as a married couple. There's no other option.
Jeni: Unfortunately South Carolina has still not expanded its Medicaid program so unless you make at least $11,600, qualifying you for a subsidy to pay for your premiums for a marketplace plan, there is no help for you. Sorry.
I suggest you go into the system and update your income information right away.
If when you first applied you projected that you would earn too much money this year to qualify for a subsidy, but it turns out your actual income for 2014 will qualify you, you will get a refund for the subsidy you were due when you file your 2014 taxes by April 15th, 2015.
You also want to update your information in the system so you can start getting the subsidy for your plan starting January 1, 2015.
Lawman: If you qualify for Medicaid in your state, you could still purchase private insurance, but you would not qualify for a subsidy to help you pay your premium.
Generally the catastrophic plans are only available to people under the age of 30, so if that's you, yes, you can get one of these plans.
In some cases if you've faced a hardship, you may also be able to buy a catastrophic plan, but based on the information you provide about your income, it's unlikely you'll qualify under this requirement.